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Crop Biotech Update

Cytogenetic Engineering of Triticale to Improve Its Breadmaking Quality

May 13, 2010

Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is a man-made crop species with combined characteristics of wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum L.) and diploid rye (Secale cereale L.). Commercial cultivars of triticale have been competing with bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) in the market due to their breadmaking characteristics. Thus, a study was conducted by a team of scientists led by Julita Rabiza-Swider of Life Science University in Poland to create genetic potential for breadmaking quality enhancement of triticale.

The team isolated 1R chromosomes to introduce wheat gluten loci and remove the rye secalin loci. The translocated chromosomes may cross over with normal chromosomes. Transmission rates and recombination rates were determined using a wide range of genetic backgrounds. Results showed that male transmission rates of all chromosomes were notably lower than female and than random, which imply reduced genetic compensation of translocations. Reduced male transmission together with recombination of the translocated chromosomes led to relatively low recovery rates of homozygotes on self-pollination. Based on the findings, chromosome FC2 could be most appropriate chromosome in breeding due to its high transmission rate and favorable stability over generations.

The abstract of this study is available at http://crop.scijournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/50/3/808.