Completed Impact Assessment Studies


Lu, JL. 2011. Insecticide Residues in Eggplant Fruits, Soil, and Water in the Largest Eggplant-Producing Area in the Philippines. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 220(1): 413-422. Download a copy at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11270-011-0778-9.

The study looked into the insecticide residues in eggplant, soil, and water samples in the largest eggplant-producing community in the Philippines. The fate of insecticides was also analyzed.


Francisco, SR. 2014. Socioeconomic Impacts of Bt Eggplant: Evidence from Multi-location Field Trials. In Gerpacio, RV and AP Aquino (eds). 2014. Socioeconomic Impacts of Bt Eggplant: Ex-ante Case Studies in the Philippines. ISAAA and SEARCA: Laguna, Philippines.

This study provides a thorough socioeconomic analysis of the eggplant production environment where multi-location field trials of Bt eggplant technology were conducted, including the socioeconomic profile of eggplant farmers and farms within the field trial sites. It quantifies the benefits from Bt eggplant technology based on results obtained from multilocation field trials, and analyzes its performance relative to non-Bt eggplant in terms of yields, cost efficiency, net profitability, and other economic parameters. It provides information to support the commercialization of Bt eggplant. It also details the knowledge, awareness, and perception (KAP) of farmers in Pangasinan and Camarines Sur where the field trials were conducted.


Francisco, SR. 2014. Health and Environmental Impacts of Bt Eggplant. In Gerpacio, RV and AP Aquino (eds). 2014. Socioeconomic Impacts of Bt Eggplant: Ex-ante Case Studies in the Philippines. ISAAA and SEARCA: Laguna, Philippines.

The study estimated ex-ante the value of health and environmental benefits of adopting Bt eggplant using the methods of risk avoidance, health cost function, and environmental impact quotient. Its data came primarily from a survey of 100 eggplant farmers in four provinces. Secondary data were also used.


Francisco, SR, C Aragon-Chiang, and GW Norton. 2014. Poverty and Nutrition Impacts of Bt Eggplant Adoption.  In Gerpacio, RV and AP Aquino (eds). 2014. Socioeconomic Impacts of Bt Eggplant: Ex-ante Case Studies in the Philippines. ISAAA and SEARCA: Laguna, Philippines.

This research sought to determine the poverty and nutrition impact of Bt eggplant technology adoption in the Philippines. It also aimed to complement the works done on economic and environmental impacts of Bt eggplant adoption in order to completely enumerate and project quantitatively the overall impact of Bt eggplant adoption.


Chupungco , AR,  DD Elazegui, MR Nguyen, MG Umali, EZ Martinez, SS Guiaya, and CA Foronda. 2014. Market Prospects of Bt Eggplant. In Gerpacio, RV and AP Aquino (eds). 2014. Socioeconomic Impacts of Bt Eggplant: Ex-ante Case Studies in the Philippines. ISAAA and SEARCA: Laguna, Philippines.

This study presents the assessment on the market prospects of Bt eggplant at the seed market and food market levels using relevant secondary data from the Philippine Bureau of Agricultural Statistics and the LGUs, as well as primary information generated via stakeholder consultations, key informant interviews, and socioeconomic surveys. The study was conducted in four major eggplant-producing provinces/regions in the Philippines where farmers, traders, and 30 consumers were interviewed from each location. For the potential suppliers of Bt eggplant seeds, seed companies, distributors, and dealers who were supplying eggplant seeds in the study sites were surveyed.


Francisco, SR, J Maupin and GW Norton. 2009. Value of Environmental Impacts of Bt Eggplant in the Philippines. In Norton, GW and DM Hautea (eds). Projected Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies for Fruit and Vegetables in the Philippines and Indonesia. ISAAA and SEAMEO SEARCA, Los Baños, Laguna (PDF:1.51MB)

Adoption of insect resistant biotech crops had shown to offer significant health and environmental benefits due to reduction in pesticide use.  In the Philippines, development of biotech eggplant that confer resistance to fruit and shoot borer (FSB) is underway.  This study aims to quantify environmental and health benefits of Bt eggplant using different valuation models available.  Health benefits are quantified using health costs function and risk avoidance model.  Environmental impacts are assessed by determining differences in field environmental impact quotient (EIQ) based on pesticide load of eggplant production using conventional hybrids and the Bt technology.


Yorobe, JM and TF Laude. 2009. Level and Implications of Regulatory Costs in Commercializing PRSV Resistant Papaya in the Philippines. In Norton, GW and DM Hautea (eds). Projected Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies for Fruit and Vegetables in the Philippines and Indonesia. ISAAA and SEAMEO SEARCA, Los Baños, Laguna (PDF:1.51MB)

The development of biotech crops entails long process and significant costs.  These include research costs in developing the technology and the regulatory costs that account for the real resources used, government regulation, transitional costs, and social welfare costs. As the experience to develop and regulate biotech crops increases, understanding the process and the costs involved becomes indispensable in rationalizing the whole biotechnology development and regulatory framework.  This study attempts to estimate development and regulatory costs involved in the development of PRSV resistant papaya in the Philippines.  Benefits that will accrue to both producers and consumers are quantified using economic surplus model.


Qaim, M. 1999.  Assessing the Impact of Banana Biotechnology in KenyaISAAA Briefs No. 10.  ISAAA: Ithaca, NY (PDF)

This study provides an in-depth analysis of the potential impact of tissue culture (TC) technology in Kenyan banana production.  Potential yield and income gains at the farm level were assessed and the expected aggregate welfare effects of the technology were analyzed by means of an economic surplus model.


Qaim, M. 1999.  The Economic Effects of Genetically Modified Orphan Commodities: Projections for Sweetpotato in KenyaISAAA Briefs No. 13.  ISAAA: Ithaca, NY (PDF)

This study assessed the potential impacts of the virus and weevil resistance technology in the Kenyan sweetpotato sector.  Interview surveys of researchers, extension workers, and farmers constitute the data basis for the quantitative analysis.  The potential effects of both technologies on farm incomes and productivities were analyzed by comparing crop enterprise budgets without and hypothetically with the use of the technologies.  The potential effects for the Kenyan sweetpotato market were also analyzed using an economic surplus model.


Yorobe, JM and CB Quicoy.  2006.  Economic impact of Bt corn in the Philippines. The Philippine Agricultural Scientist. 89(3):258-267.

In this study, ex-post farm level impacts of Bt corn adoption in major corn producing areas in the country were determined after one year of commercialization.  Differences in productivity and crop budgets of Bt and non-Bt corn farms were compared using data in two cropping seasons.  Market effects to the corn sector were also quantified using the standard consumer-producer surplus model.


Projected Impacts of Biotechnology Products in Indonesia and the Philippines.

The study complements the Agricultural Biotechnology Support Program II (ABSP-II) initiatives aimed at providing forward-looking evaluations of the market-level impacts of biotech products.  ABSP-II projects in Southeast Asia are focused on developing and commercializing five major biotech crops: fruit and shoot borer resistant (Bt) eggplant, ring-spot virus resistant (PRSV) papaya, and multiple-virus resistant tomato in the Philippines, and late blight resistant (LBR) potato and multiple-virus resistant tomato in Indonesia.  A basic economic impact analysis was conducted estimating potential economic benefits to society of these target biotech crops.  Income and cost effects were estimated using farm level budget under scenarios of "with" and "without" the technology.  The size and distribution of economic benefits to producers and consumers were quantified using economic surplus model.

Results of the study are presented in the book Projected Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnologies for Fruits and Vegetables in the Philippines and Indonesia