A roundtable meeting organized by the JSW-Time of India Earth Care Initiatives 2011 and the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) was held in 16 August to identify adaption and mitigation strategies to manage the risk and protect the livelihoods of small and marginal farmers who live in the rainfed regions. Noted experts and scientists at ICRISAT discussed various topics to 65 participants such as the local impacts of climate change at regional/subregional levels, capacity building of all stakeholders including policymakers, development of climate-ready crops using new science tools, and building local institution and enabling policies to ensure equitable and inclusive development of smallholder farmers.
ICRISAT Director General William Dar opined that "Rainfed farming systems are the hot spots of poverty and are also the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change," in his inaugural address. He also advocated for a holistic approach integrating the adoption of climate-resilient crops and various soil, water and nutrient management strategies, with supporting policies and institutions.
The original news can be viewed at http://www.icrisat.org/newsroom/news-releases/icrisat-pr-2011-media17.htm
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation granted a support of US$1 million to the African Agricultural Technology Foundation for its organizational operations, resource mobilizations, monitoring and evaluation of various on-going projects towards the improvement of the livelihoods and productivity of smallholder Sub-Saharan Africa farmers through the use of innovative technologies.
"The support from Gates Foundation will help AATF become a stronger institution and enhance its capacity to achieve its mission of helping African farmers improve their livelihoods through better agricultural technologies," says Dr. Jacob Mignouna, the Acting AATF Executive Director.
The AATF partners with various country institutions from the government and private sector in projects to improve priority food crops in over ten African countries.
For more information see http://www.aatf-africa.org/
The implementing regulations for the Kenya Biosafety Act 2009 were gazetted on 15th August 2011. They were published via Kenya Gazette supplements 73, 74, and 76 as legal notices no 96, 97, and 98. The three sets of regulations comprise: the Contained use, the Environmental release and Import, export and transit of genetically modified organisms in Kenya. They provide guidance on procedures to follow in the areas of research, commercialization and trade of genetically modified organisms.
By gazetting the regulations, Kenya is now fully compliant with the international requirements on the development and utilization of the technology. Indeed, the country has a Biotechnology Policy, a Biosafety Act, a functional institutional arrangement through the National Biosafety Authority and a mechanism for public participation through the National Biotechnology Awareness Strategy (Bio AWARE). Trials on Bt cotton are at an advanced stage. With these new developments, researchers can now proceed to the open field trials of the crop and eventual commercialization.
"We are very happy with the regulations as they are, since they reflect the recommendations of all stakeholders. The regulations are now opening up the gates for commercialization of GM Crops in Kenya" said Dr. Charles Waturu, the Principal Investigator on the Bt cotton project, who is also the chairman of the Bt cotton commercialization task force in Kenya.
For more information on this and on biosafety matters in Kenya, please contact the chair of the National Biosafety Authority board, Professor Miriam Kinyua at email@example.com
Scientists have been investigating the series of chemical signals that the group of plant hormones called brassinosteroids send from a protein on the surface of a plant cell to the cell's nucleus. Understanding the brassinosteroid pathway will help scientists understand plant growth and develop strategies to enhance food and energy crop production.
Carnegie scientists Tae-Wuk Kim and Zhiyong Wang found another link in this chain and published the results of their study in Molecular Cell. The research team identified a protein called Constitutive Differential Growth1 (CDG1), which adds a phosphate to another protein BSU1. Previous studies have revealed that BSU1 deactivates another protein called BIN2. When BIN2 is turned on, it blocks the transcription factors BZR1 and BZR2. When BZR1 and BZR2 are inactive, they are unable to enter the plant cell's nucleus. When BIN2 is turned off by BSU1, BZR1 and BZR2 bind to DNA molecules in the nucleus and promote various gene activities.
"Together with our previous work, these results provide the detailed mechanisms of brassinosteroid signaling," Wang said. "Because this system of brassinosteroid-activated proteins is one of the best-understood chemical pathways in plant physiology, these results could help scientists understand many other plant cell systems."
Representatives from Embrapa Maize and Sorghum, the Secretary of State for Science, Technology and Higher Education of Minas Gerais, and representatives from Federal University of Vicosa and University Uberlandia met with Purdue University scientists headed by Cynthia Daniels for the implementation of a partnership agreement to pursue research and training program for the development of bioenergy.
"The agreement will focus on the mutual interest of the institutions, which is the development of sorghum lines that have a better ability to convert biomass into ethanol second generation," said Cynthia Daniels.
The Embrapa team will be conducting research relating to the characterization of sorghum for high biomass production of second generation ethanol including lignocellulose. The institute has a large collection of sorghum germplasm that originated from various countries, as well as varieties and elite lines of sorghum and sorghum hybrids which are excellent producers of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Purdue University on the other hand will provide technical expertise in the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic materials.
The original news in Spanish can be viewed at http://www.embrapa.br/embrapa/imprensa/noticias/2011/agosto/3a-semana/parceria-preve-estimulos-ao-sorgo-sacarino.
The American Seed Trade Association (ASTA) recognized the increasing concerns on coexistence among different agricultural technologies. To address this, three resources were developed that include a paper on ‘Existing U.S Seed Industry Production Practices that Address Coexistence', ASTA's principles about the practice of coexistence in the seed industry, and a Guide to Seed Quality Management.
"Pulling together these resources has been a priority for ASTA during the past year," says Andy LaVigne, ASTA president and chief executive officer. "The seed industry has been practicing coexistence for many years and with the changing agricultural landscape, the necessity for cooperation between producers of varying production methods within close proximity continues to rise." Further, she added that, "It is important that agriculture community understands that there are mechanisms being used to help foster coexistence, helping each farmer – no matter the production method – get the most value out of their chosen crop."
Through a genomewide association mapping of defense genes, UC Davis scientists have found that complex traits for plant adaption to environmental challenges are influenced by variations in thousands of genes which are also affected by plant's growth and the external environment. Lead author Daniel Kliebenstein and colleagues measured glucosinolates (GSL), a plant produced insect and disease protectant in different developmental stages of Arabidopsis thaliana and treated with or without silver nitrate to mimick environmental stress.
On the results published in PLoS Genetics, Kliebenstein said, "We showed that both external and internal environments altered the identified genes so significantly that using plant tissues from different developmental stages, or that were treated with the silver nitrate, led to the identification of very different gene sets for particular traits."
In addition, the researchers developed a new process for winnowing candidate genes by analyzing overlapping datasets of genomic information to filter out true-positive gene identifications.
For more detailed information, see http://www.news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=9972
U.S. Department of Agriculture scientists are investigating the ability of plant pigments called anthocyanins to fight pests. They observed that corn earworm caterpillars that consumed blue areas of petunia petals gained less weight than those larvae that fed on the white petals. They also observed that the caterpillars exposed to anthocyanins had slower growth rate. Cabbage looper caterpillars also exhibited similar results. Those that fed on the blue area of petunia petals had higher mortality rate than those that fed on the white areas.
According to Eric Johnson, a molecular biologist of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS), "it's unclear what petal compound or compounds were involved in the loopers' deaths, their toxicity was apparently increased by the anthocyanins' presence."
The findings of this study could give rise to new crop varieties that have "dual-use phytochemicals" which can fight pest and benefit human health at the same time.
Read more at http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2011/110816.htm.
Asia and the Pacific
Genetically modified corn is planned to be grown on large scale throughout the country next year, the Agricultural Genetics Institute said. Genetically modified corn is more resistant to insect pests and grass pesticides with crop yields 30-40 percent higher than normal corn. A trial cultivation of genetically modified corn in northern Vinh Phuc province has so far shown no negative impacts on the environment and biological diversity.
Details on this news can be viewed at http://en.vietnamplus.vn/Home/Vietnam-to-grow-genetically-modified-corn/20118/20041.vnplus
The Department of Science and Technology, Department of Plantation and the local Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vinh Phuc province has organized a seminar which included a visit to genetically modified (GM) corn trial field in Vinh Phuc Province.
Experts provided presentations on the science and benefits that can be derived from GM corn including resistance to pests and tolerance to herbicides. Preliminary data on the on-going field trials was presented and showed that GM corn and non-GM corn has no difference on biodiversity and environment effects, specifically it has no affect on non-target organisms and other non-lepidopteran insects.
Dr. Nguyen Tri Ngoc, Director of the Department of Plantation said that the success of GM corn trial in Vinh Phuc is the basis for biosafety council to evaluate the effectiveness of the technology. He recommended the Vietnam Agriculture Institute to conduct a large scale trial in winter in Vinh Phuc, and if successful will lead to the commercializataion of GM corn in 2012.
The trial that is being conducted in Vinh Phuc province is under the key program for biotech development and application in agriculture which will run until 2020. In addition, Vietnam Agriculture Genetic Institute (AGI), Pioneer Hi-Bred Vietnam Co, Ltd; Dekalb Vietnam Co, and Ltd (Monsanto Thailand) has conducted large scale trials of GM corn at Di Vu Breeding station, Vinh Tuong District and Mai Nham Breeding Station in Tam Duong District to collect data for risk assessment of GM crops for biodiversity and environment, pests resistance and herbicide tolerance in agro-ecological conditions in Vietnam.
For details, see the original news in Vietnamese at http://nnptntvinhphuc.gov.vn/index.php?action=details&&idmuc=TSX06L
A unique plant protein monitoring database that would feature information on how plants respond to environmental changes will be developed between the University of Western Australia based Australian Research Centre (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology and Agilent Technologies.
"We aim to produce an electronic notepad for lab results, where data are accessible for colleagues in the lab next door, and collaborators across the nation and around the world," said Plant Energy Biology Chief Investigator Winthrop Professor Harvey Millar. "Results are automatically updated into relevant databases and cross-matched to find previously unknown interactions. This will save time and also guarantee the integrity of data, so scientists can get on with the important tasks of discovery and innovation," he added.
"The database will be shared with the global community of interested researchers and used to address future challenges such as how to feed an ever-increasing population, and how to get plants to grow in arid, cold or high salt environments," the news release said.
The Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF) will fund a new rice research programme that will help ensure rice sufficiency of Singapore and the rest of the region. Scientists from the National University of Singapore (NUS), Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory (TLL), and International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) are involved in the programme. They aim to develop new rice varieties with integrated protection against diseases, reduce the requirement for limited resources such as water, and therefore increase sustainable rice production and guarantee long-term food security.
At present, Singapore is entirely dependent on rice imports. Thus it is affected by the fragility of rice supplies and price escalations in international markets. Investments on rice research is vital to help rice farmers have better techniques to grow more rice on less land to ensure and protect future rice supplies in Asia.
Achim Dobermann, Deputy Director General for Research of IRRI, said, "We need to be thinking beyond national borders to help tackle food supply issues…And Singapore is showing real leadership within Asia by doing just that."
The press release is available at http://newshub.nus.edu.sg/pressrel/1108/120811.php.
The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotechnology Applications in cooperation with CropLife Asia and Asia BioBusiness Pte. Ltd. held a workshop last 12 August, in conjunction with the International Conference on Asian Food Security which ran through 9 to 12 August in Singapore. The workshop ‘Challenges to the Acceptance and Adoption of Crop Biotechnology featured presentations on the Overview of biotechnology and its role in food security by Dr. Siang Hee Tan, Biotech crop adoption status in Asia by Dr. Randy Hautea, Challenges to commercialization of biotech crops by Dr. Andrew Powell, and the Asia and the Pacific experience in communicating crop biotechnology by Dr. Mariechel Navarro.
Following the active participation of 38 participants, moderated by Dr. Rhodora R. Aldemita, a need to strengthen communication of biotechnology in the region was emphasized. In addition, new strategies should be adopted that include:
For details on the workshop contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Various experts have expressed their views about the compatibility and advantage of biotech crops especially Bt crops with other resistance management strategies during the "Trainers Training Workshop on Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) in Vegetables" held last August 16, 2011 in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.
Dr. John Andaloro of the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) International said that Bt crops are great for IRM because they essentially have a different mode of action and can be considered as a rotation partner. "From a resistance management point of view, it's actually very conducive because they wipe out (the resistant insects). If an insect which is resistant to the chemical pesticide such as diamide or pyrethroid feeds on a Bt crop, it gets killed. So it is a great part of integrated pest management and also insecticide resistance management," said Dr. Andaloro.
Entomology expert and University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) Chancellor Dr. Luis Rey Velasco, in his keynote address asserted that "Bt corn contributes in IRM because its accompanying principles, high dose and refuge system, is a huge help in delaying the development of resistant insects."
Dr. Lourdes Taylo, study leader from UPLB in response to a query on how Bt eggplant can help in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) said that, "The foundation of a good IPM is a resistant variety. The use of Bt eggplant will complement the use of biological control as there will be accompanying reduction in frequency of insecticide spray applications."
IPM is a vital part of farming because its goal is to manage the insect pest damage with the rational integration of two or more tactics with least negative impact on beneficial non-target organisms. Various methods are employed for IPM including the use of biological control agents.
The training was part of a series of IRM workshops undertaken in major eggplant and cabbage production areas nationwide. The workshop at Los Baños was organized by CropLife Philippines, IRAC Int., and the Department of Agriculture Region 4 and was attended by municipal and provincial agriculture officers, local government and company agriculture extension workers, and farmers.
Colin Ruscoe, British Crop Production Council (BCPC) chairman, expressed his thoughts on UK government's reduced spending for agricultural research that affects the technology base.
"We should counter this by diverting some of our growing overseas aid payments into UK-based research towards developing GM crops resistant to drought, heat, pests and diseases," said Ruscoe. "This would provide sustainable solutions in famine-prone parts of the world. At the same time, we can use these technology platforms to target key UK crops – wheat, potatoes and oilseed rape."
He also added that the United Kingdom was originally a leader in GM research, particularly in agricultural biotechnology, manifested by contributions of important research centers such as the John Innes Centre, Rothamsted Research, Newcastle University, and the National Institute of Agricultural Botany. Thus, while the other countries in the EU remains idle in terms of GM technology, "UK should again take the lead in researching traits – using GM and other plant breeding technologies."
"By targeting foreign aid into areas where it will have a sustainable impact in developing countries, and by exploiting our world class research base to provide appropriate technologies that improve food production and UK commercial competitiveness, we will surely achieve a win-win situation," Ruscoe concluded.
Cornell University scientists William Cox and Jerome Cherney investigated the response of eight hybrids (three Bt and a non-Bt hybrid, two brown midrib and two silage specific Bt hybrids) to four seeding rates (25,000, 30,000, 35,000, and 40,000 kernels/acre). The study was conducted on a silt loam soil in New York from 2008 to 2009. They measured the leaf area, biomass accumulation, silage yield, and silage quality, as bases for determination if various hybrid types need different seeding rates for maximum yield and quality.
Results showed that all hybrids exhibited similar responses to seeding rates in terms of growth, yield, and quality. Each hybrid had their highest crop growth rates at the 40,000 kernel/acre seeding rate during vegetative development. On the other hand, growth rates were found to be similar in each seeding rate during the silking stage. This implies that the seeding rates should not be increased for Bt hybrids or decreased for midrib hybrids.
Read the research article at https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/articles/103/4/1051.
Scientist Dong Cao and colleagues at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences transformed a salt tolerance gene from wheat (TaNHX2) into soybean hairy roots through Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation to investigate the effect of overexpression of TaNHX2 on the tolerance of composite plants with transgenic hairy roots.
After exposure to salt stress, the composite plants showed high salinity tolerance while control plants exhibited chlorosis and died within 15 days. The researchers also transformed TaNHX2 into soybean using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation to further validate the gene's function in salt tolerance. Transgenic lines had improved salt tolerance in plant biomass and flower number per plant, compared with the wild type plants. Moreover, some of the transgenic plants had longer survival, less growth inhibition and more flowers than the wild type.
Based on the findings, it was proven that TaNHX2 could improve salt tolerance of soybean, and A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation could be used as another tool in investigating the functions of candidate genes in soybean.
The research paper is published at http://www.springerlink.com/content/h51n73352374v877/.
African stem borer (Busseola fusca) is a major pest of maize causing holes and windows in the leaves, stems, and cobs. This pest is difficult to control using chemical insecticides, thus Derick George of Newcastle University, UK, and colleagues investigated if transgenic maize expressing Cry1Ab could be an alternative strategy to control the pest.
Results showed that recombinant Cry1Ab decreased the larval weight by 60%, while larval weight of the control increased by 25%. No effects in the mortality were observed. Insect survival, developmental rate, and pupal and adult weight were significantly reduced on maize expressing Cry1Ab (MON810) compared to the non-transgenic parental line. These differences were observed to be more evident in the second-instar larvae than in the third-instar larvae. Larvae fed with Bt maize consumed less leaf than the control-fed larvae. Further analysis showed that Bt maize had damaging effects on the cellular structures in the midgut epithelium. Therefore, Bt maize can be used to control the African stem borer.
The research article is available for Pest Management Science subscribers at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.2260/abstract.
Beyond Crop Biotech
Researchers have sequenced the genome of the commercially important fish in the Northern Hemisphere, the Atlantic cod. The genome further revealed that the fish has a unique mechanism in fighting diseases.
University of Oslo evolutionary geneticist Kjetill Jakobsen and his team sequenced the Atlantic cod's genome to understand how to manage cod fisheries but was surprised that their findings led to understanding of the immune system evolution. After comparing the DNA of Atlantic cod with stickleback, the closest relative of the fish whose genome has been decoded, they discovered that the cod do not have the genes that code for proteins called MHCII, CD4, and invariant chain. These proteins are vital in the immune system of almost all vertebrates, especially in combating bacterial attacks. When these proteins are absent, the animals are expected to exhibit week antibody response. However, that is not the case for Atlantic cod.
The researchers found another part of the genome that gave hints on how the fish can survive bacterial infections. Atlantic cods have a wide range of Toll-like receptors, which enables the immune system to have fast responses but less complicated than T and B cell responses. The said receptors are also more varied than the MHCI molecules.
While these findings elucidate Atlantic cod's immune capabilities, these are not good news to the aquaculture industry at the moment. Due to the fish's unique immune system, it is not advisable that they are farmed outside their natural environment. However, the findings may lead to the development of cod-appropriate vaccines, said Jakobsen.
Read the original article at http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2011/08/cod-genome-reveals-stunning-gap-.html.
A researcher team at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center headed by Thomas Smith discovered that green tea can be used for the development of drugs to treat a deadly genetic disorder and two types of tumors.
The genetic disorder known as hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HHS) is caused by loss of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) regulation. In this disorder, patients (usually children) react to protein consumption by excessively secreting insulin, becoming severely hypoglycemic, which can be fatal. Smith and colleagues found green tea compounds that can compensate for HHS by shutting down GDH. They are currently investigating the atomic structure of the green tea compounds with the objective of using the compounds to produce better drugs for the disorder.
Two research teams also validated that blocking GDH with green tea is effective at killing two kinds of tumors, glioblastomas and tunerous sclerosis.
Read the news release at http://www.danforthcenter.org/wordpress/?page_id=395&pid=6491.
EFSA, the European Food Safety Authority invites stakeholders and all interested parties to comment on its draft guidance for Risk Assessment of GM Animal products until 30 September 2011. The draft document outlines specific data requirements and methodologies in the risk assessment for food and feed derived from GM animals, submitted for market authorization in the EU. The guideline discusses how GM animals and food and feed derived from them will be compared to conventional counterparts in terms of food and feed safety as well as animal health and welfare aspects.
For more details, see the complete article at http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/110810.htm
Scientists at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore have successfully engineered Escherichia coli bacteria that attack Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that causes lethal infections to humans. P. aeruginosa fights with its own species by releasing toxic proteins known as pyocins. Thus, biochemical engineer Matthew Chang and colleagues inserted into E.coli the genes that code for pyocin 5, which kills specific strains of P. aeruginosa that infect people. E. coli automatically burst only when they have detected chemical signals from infectious strains of P. aeruginosa. With this specific reaction, the development of antibiotic resistance is delayed.
In laboratory tests, only 1 percent of P. aeruginosa have survived in the presence of the engineered E. coli. The researchers are currently improving the engineered E. coli to deliver better pyocin before using animal models. They are also developing another E. coli strain that targets Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium that targets human gut and cause cholera.
The 2nd International Symposium on Biotechnology of Fruit Species (Biotechfruit 2012) will be held at the Rutherford Hotel, Nelson, New Zealand on March 25-29, 2012. The Symposium aims to bring together scientists working on basic and applied fruit-related research and discuss topics dealing with plant development in model systems, perennial fruit crop biotechnology, and tropical fruit research. The program also includes site visits to working orchards and a research station.
Abstract submission will close on October 30, 2011. Read more details at the conference website: http://www.biotechfruit2012.com/.
The Jinju International Agriculture Expo 2011 will be held in November 9 to 12, 2011 at the Jinju Complex Stadium. The expo features exhibits and lectures on various agricultural topics including biotechnology, crop production and processing, farm machinery, livestock, forestry and agricultural services to name a few. The expo is organized by GnA International Co. Ltd., K. Fairs, Jinju MBC and supported by several government and private institutions including the Rural Development Administration, The Korean Farmers and Fishermen's NEWS and the Korea Horticultural Research Institute among others.
For details, see the website in Korean at http://www.agrex.or.kr/
The International Symposium on Minor Fruts and Medicinal Plants for Health and Ecological Security will be held in December 19-22, 2011 at the Farmers' Training Center in Kalyani, Nadia Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India. The symposium is hoped provide a common platform for the researchers, growers, processors, traders and policy makers for deliberation and discussion on various issues for the development of minor fruits and medicinal plants to examine opportunities in the domestic and international trade.
To join, see the website at http://www.ismfmp.com/.
The Agricultural Gene-Flow Workshop will be held in September 7 and 8, 2011 in Washington D. C. to discuss gene flow in agriculture, and technologies for controlling it. The workshop will focus on current and future strategies, both transgenic and nontransgenic, to minimize gene flow and maintain seed purity in all sectors of agriculture. The workshop, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, will feature speakers from the United States and Canada, including four UC Davis scientists. More information and registration are available online at: http://sbc.ucdavis.edu/.
See the original announcement at http://www.news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=9962
The 11th Asian Maize Conference will be held on November 7-11, 2011 at the Guangxi Wharton International Hotel, Nanning, Guangxi, China. The conference program covers topics such as adaptation to climate change, mitigating climate change effects, and meeting maize demands in Asia.
The largest biotechnology event in the region will be running for the 8th consecutive year, featuring leading corporations, universities, research institutions and industrythought leaders of world renowned calibre. BioMalaysia 2011 Conference & Exhibition will be held from the 21st to the 23rd of November 2011 at Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre with many new and exciting features that will expand your knowledge and take your business to another level. BioMalaysia 2011 will have participation from every region, and this international dimension will be enhanced with the addition of the 6th Annual Pacific Rim Summit on Industrial Biotechnology & Bioenergy, held for the very first time outside of United States of America in tandem with the BioMalaysia 2011 Conference.
For more information: http://www.biomalaysia.com.my/2011/
The Agricultural Biotechnology Annual Report for the Republic of South Africa has been released by the U. S. Foreign Agricultural Service Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN). The 27-page Report authored by Dirk Esterhuizen highlights the production of biotech crops in South Africa, event and crop approvals, its adoption, biotech crops under development, approved field trials, and the regulatory framework, among others. The current issue on mandatory labeling was discussed alongside with views from many sectors including the trade industry, the consumers, and the policy makers.
Brazil's Agricultural Biotechnology Annual Report has been released by the U. S. Foreign Agricultural Service Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN). The 9-page Report authored by Joao Silva features plant biotechnology trade and production, plant biotechnology policy, plant biotechnology capacity building and outreach, and animal biotechnology.
The full report can be accessed at http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Agricultural%20Biotechnology%20Annual_Brasilia_Brazil_7-13-2011.pdf